Difference between revisions of "NTSC video"

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Revision as of 08:08, 11 June 2009

Note: This data is preliminary and still being reviewed.

Basics

Master clock is 21.47727273 MHz. Each PPU pixel lasts four clocks. $xy refers to a palette color in the range $00 to $3F.

Scanline Timing

Values in PPU pixels (341 total per scanline).

sync 25
black 4
colorburst 15
black 5
pulse 1
left border (background color) 15
active 256
right border (background color) 11
black 9

Brightness Levels

Voltage levels used by the PPU are as follows - absolute, relative to synch, and normalized between black level and white:

Type Absolute Relative Normalized
Synch 0.781 0.000 -0.359
Black 1.300 0.518 0.000
Colorburst L 1.000 0.218 -0.208
Colorburst H 1.712 0.931 0.286
Color 0D 1.131 0.350 -0.117
Color 1D 1.300 0.518 0.000
Color 2D 1.743 0.962 0.308
Color 3D 2.331 1.550 0.715
Color 00 1.875 1.090 0.397
Color 10 2.287 1.500 0.681
Color 20 2.743 1.960 1.000
Color 30 2.743 1.960 1.000

$xE/$xF output the Black voltage. $x1-$xC output a square wave alternating between levels for $xD and $x0. Colors $20 and $30 are exactly the same.

Color Phases

111111------
22222------2
3333------33
444------444
55------5555
6------66666
------777777
-----888888-
----999999--
---AAAAAA---
--BBBBBB----
-CCCCCC-----

The color generator is clocked by the rising and falling edges of the ~21.48 MHz clock, resulting in an effective ~42.95 MHz clock rate. There are 12 color square waves, spaced at regular phases. Each runs at the ~3.58 MHz colorburst rate. Color $xY uses the wave shown in row Y from the table. Color burst uses color phase 8 (with voltages listed above).

Color Tint Bits

There are three color modulation channels controlled by the top three bits of $2001. Each channel uses one of the color square waves (see above diagram) and enables attenuation of the video signal when the color square wave is high. A single attenuator is shared by all channels.

$2001 Phase
Bit 7 Color 8
Bit 6 Color 4
Bit 5 Color C

When signal attenuation is enabled by one or more of the channels and the current pixel is a color other than $xE/$xF (black), the signal is attenuated as follows (calculations given for both relative and absolute values as shown in the voltage table above):

relative = relative * 0.746

normalized = normalized * 0.746 - 0.0912

Example Waveform

This waveform steps through various grays and then stops on a color.

 1.0               +--+
 0.9               |  |
 0.8               |  |
 0.7            +--+  | +-+ +-+
 0.6            |     | | | | |
 0.5            |     | | | | |
 0.4         +--+     | | | | |
 0.3      +--+        | | | | |
 0.2      |           | | | | |
 0.1      |           | | | | |
 0.0 . +--+ . . . . . +-+ +-+ + . .
-0.1 --+
     0D 0F 2D 00 10 30   11

Interactive Demo

The following C source code implements the above described algorithm and displays it on screen with interactive mouse control of phase using SDL.