Action 53 mapper
The Action 53 mapper allows making a multicart of games that use multiple discrete mappers. It was assigned to iNES Mapper 028.
- Register select
- Register value
$5000: Register select
7654 3210 S R | +- Select register +--------- 0: User registers; 1: Supervisor registers
In a multicart, registers $00 and $01 change the bank within a game, and registers $80 and $81 remain constant throughout a given game's execution. Some games ported from SGROM may rewrite register $80, usually to change mirroring.
$00: CHR bank
7654 3210 M BB | ++- Set CHR RAM A14-A13 +------ Set mirroring mode bit 0 if H/V mirroring is disabled
$01: Inner bank
7654 3210 M BBBB | ++++- Set current PRG ROM bank +------ Set mirroring mode bit 0 if H/V mirroring is disabled
If the current mirroring mode is one of the 1-screen modes (0 or 1), writes to registers $00 and $01 change bit 0 of the mirroring mode to D4 of the written value. (This simulates the mirroring control of AxROM.) If the current mirroring mode is vertical or horizontal (2 or 3), D4 is ignored.
7654 3210 SS PPMM || ||++- Nametable mirroring mode || ++--- PRG bank mode ++------ PRG outer bank size
|Mode||Effect||A10 output||Effect of write to register $00 or $01|
|0||1-screen lower bank||0||D4 changes bit 0 of the mirroring mode|
|1||1-screen upper bank||1||D4 changes bit 0 of the mirroring mode|
|2||Vertical||PPU A10||D4 is ignored|
|3||Horizontal||PPU A11||D4 is ignored|
While the mirroring mode is 0 or 1 (1-screen), bit 0 is can be written in three places: bit 0 of $80, bit 4 of $00, or bit 4 of $01.
|0, 1||BNROM/AOROM||Current 32 KiB bank in $8000-$FFFF|
|2||UNROM (#180)|| Fixed bottom half of outer bank in $8000-$BFFF|
Current bank in $C000-$FFFF
|3||UNROM (#2)|| Current bank in $8000-$BFFF|
Fixed top half of outer bank in $C000-$FFFF
When the fixed bank ($8000-$BFFF in mode 2 or $C000-$FFFF in mode 3) is accessed, it treats accesses to the fixed bank the same way as accesses in mode 0 with 32K: the outer bank bits are passed straight through. For example, this would allow the fixed $C000 bank in mode 3 128K to be set to 16K bank 7 (as in mapper 2) or 1, 3, or 5. In mode 2 128K, the fixed $8000 bank could be configured as 16K bank 0 (as in mapper 180) or 2, 4, or 6.
|0||A15 and up controlled by outer bank (32 KiB)|
|1||A16 and up controlled by outer bank (64 KiB)|
|2||A17 and up controlled by outer bank (128 KiB)|
|3||A18 and up controlled by outer bank (256 KiB)|
Again, when a fixed bank is being accessed, this is temporarily forced to 32K, allowing all outer bank bits to come through.
These are the outputs on A22-A14 in each of the 12 combinations of mode and size, with o used for outer bank bits and i used for inner bank bits:
|Mode value||PRG bank mode||Outer bank size||Bank in $8000||Bank in $C000|
|$00-$07||32 KiB||32 KiB||
|$08-$0B||Fixed $8000||32 KiB||
|$0C-$0F||Fixed $C000||32 KiB||
|$10-$17||32 KiB||64 KiB||
|$18-$1B||Fixed $8000||64 KiB||
|$1C-$1F||Fixed $C000||64 KiB||
|$20-$27||32 KiB||128 KiB||
|$28-$2B||Fixed $8000||128 KiB||
|$2C-$2F||Fixed $C000||128 KiB||
|$30-$37||32 KiB||256 KiB||
|$38-$3B||Fixed $8000||256 KiB||
|$3C-$3F||Fixed $C000||256 KiB||
For all of these cases, the "o"s come from the topmost outer bank bits and the "i"s come from the bottommost inner bank bits.
$81: Outer bank
7654 3210 BBBB BBBB ++++-++++- Set outer PRG ROM bank
When the outer bank size is set greater than 32K, the bank number is not barrel shifted. Instead, the least significant bits are ignored. Bits 5 through 3, for example, always control PRG ROM A20 through A18.
Many implementations recognize only the lower 4 or 6 bits for two reasons: memory cost and the practical limit of 2 MiB PRG ROM in an iNES ROM image. The PowerPak uses only the low 4 bits, as it has only 512 KiB of RAM for PRG ROM. And by the 2010s, 5-volt 8-bit parallel flash memories larger than 2Mx8 had become hard to find. An implementation supporting NES 2.0 large ROMs should recognize all bits for a maximum of 8 MiB.
Power up state
At power on, the last 16 KiB of the ROM is mapped into $C000-$FFFF. The rest of the state is unspecified. The mapper state is unchanged on reset.
Non-normative: One possible init sequence involves setting reg $81 = $FF and reg $80 = $02 to get into oversize-BNROM mode.
Non-normative: If desired, games in a multicart can be patched with an appropriate reset stub to allow returning to the menu. The Action 53 build tool does this semi-automatically for NROM games.
- NROM-128 (#0)
- Outer bank size 0, PRG mode 2 or 3, mirroring H or V, select $01
- NROM-256 (#0)
- Outer bank size 0, PRG mode 0, mirroring H or V, select $01
- CNROM (#3)
- Outer bank size 0, PRG mode 0, mirroring H or V, select $00
- BNROM (#34)
- Outer bank size 1-3, PRG mode 0, mirroring H or V, select $01
- BNROM oversize (#34 as emulated)
- Outer bank size 0, PRG mode 0, mirroring H or V, select $81, and modify bus-conflict-avoidance table for position within multicart
- UNROM (common) (#2)
- Outer bank size 1-3, PRG mode 3, mirroring H or V, select $01
- UNROM (Crazy Climber and MGC 2011) (#180)
- Outer bank size 1-3, PRG mode 2, mirroring H or V, select $01
- AOROM (#7)
- Outer bank size 1-3, PRG mode 0, mirroring 1-screen, select $01
See Action 53 mapper/Reference implementations for functions in Python and 6502 assembly language that calculate the bank number output to PRG ROM A20-A14 as described above. These may be used to verify emulator or hardware implementations.
Supported in the following emulators:
- FCEUX (2.2.2)
- Bizhawk c217768
The MiST FPGA computer includes an implementation in Verilog.
Input pins: 2 power, 16 signal
- Power and ground
- CPU D7, D5-D0 (D6 used only in 4-8 MB version)
- CPU A14-A12, /PRGSEL, M2, R/W
- PPU A12-A10
Output pins: 12 signal
- CHR RAM A14-A13
- CIRAM A10
- PRG ROM A20-A14, /CE
- Optional PRG RAM enable ($6000-$7FFF)
A CPLD requires one macrocell per bit of state and one for each output pin controlled by a multiplexer, plus possibly a couple more for more complex operations. Depending on maximum PRG ROM size (512 KiB to 8 MiB), this mapper requires 18 to 22 bits of state and 7 multiplexed outputs, which fits comfortably in a 32- or 36-cell CPLD.
- Register select: 2 bits
- Register $00: 2 bits (D4 is directed to register $80)
- Register $01: 4 bits (D4 is directed to register $80)
- Register $80: 6 bits
- Register $81: 4, 6, or 8 bits
- A17-A14: 4 multiplexed outputs
- CIRAM A10: 1 multiplexed output
- PRG ROM /CE: 1 multiplexed output
- PRG RAM /CE: 1 multiplexed output
After synthesizing a 2 MiB design and laying fitting within a XC9536XL CPLD, 27/36 Macrocells were consumed (75%). Additionally this design requires 25/34 available pins on the XC9536XL.
Adding WRAM control requires 2 Macrocells and 2 pins.
Lowering to 1 MB by shaving off PRG ROM A20 would save 1 Macrocell and 1 pin, if desired.