MMC1 was Nintendo's first ASIC mapper for the NES.
Quick setup for UNROM style
If you are using the SGROM or SNROM board to provide an environment similar to UNROM, with 8 KB of CHR RAM, a fixed PRG ROM bank at $C000, and a 16 KB switchable PRG ROM bank at $8000, do this in your init code after the mapper has been reset:
lda #$0E ; vertical mirroring, fixed $C000, 8 KB CHR pages sta $8000 ; (use $0F instead for horizontal mirroring) lsr a sta $8000 lsr a sta $8000 lsr a sta $8000 lsr a sta $8000
Games that use CHR RAM switch to another PRG bank before they copy tile data into CHR RAM.
Some revisions of the MMC1 IC might power up in a mode other than fixed-$C000, requiring that the vectors and the start of the init code be placed in all banks, much as in BxROM or AxROM or GxROM. Other revisions guarantee that the fixed bank is loaded at power on. To make sure your code works on all MMC1 revisions, put the following code in the last 16 bytes of each 16384 byte bank. (Barbie uses almost identical code.)
reset_stub: sei ldx #$FF txs ; set the stack pointer stx $8000 ; reset the mapper jmp reset ; must be in $C000-$FFED .addr nmiHandler, reset_stub, irqHandler
Then to switch PRG ROM banks, load the bank number (0-15) into A and call this subroutine:
mmc1_load_prg_bank: sta $E000 lsr a sta $E000 lsr a sta $E000 lsr a sta $E000 lsr a sta $E000 rts
If an NMI or IRQ can interrupt a series of writes, it is not easy to know what state the serial register was in before the interruption. One technique for coping with this problem involves using a flag variable to indicate that a serial write should be retried:
- The normal serial write routine should have an "interrupted" flag:
- Clear the flag before beginning the series of writes.
- When completed, check the flag. If an interrupt is indicated, reset the serial register, clear the interrupted flag and begin the serial writes again.
- If the NMI or IRQ needs to switch banks, it should reset the serial register and set the "interrupted" flag to indicate that it has done this.
- MMC1 technical reference
- forum post: thefox describes MMC1 interrupt technique used in STREEMERZ
- SNROM project template by Damian Yerrick on GitHub